Study Finds Risk of Heart Valve Infections Increase in Hospitals

08 Oct Study Finds Risk of Heart Valve Infections Increase in Hospitals

Rutgers University (RU) researchers report that people with heart disease or defective or artificial heart valves are at increased risk of developing a potentially deadly valve infection.

Research findings reveal that new risk factors for this medical condition have been identified and that an increasing number of patients admitted to hospitals for other diseases are at risk of contracting this potentially lethal cardiac infection.

The RU study, which was published online prior to print in The American Journal of Cardiology, details the need for hospitals to develop ways to prevent this serious infection in the heart.

For Those at Risk of HVI, Consider Taking Antibiotics

The researchers note that the Dallas-based American Heart Association (AHA) urges that all people at risk for heart valve infections, referred to as infective endocarditis, (typically caused by bacteria entering the bloodstream through the mouth, gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract) take antibiotics. In 2007, the guidelines were revised to recommend antibiotics only for those determined to be at high risk for infection, says AHA.

The study found a significant decline in the number of patients hospitalized with infective endocarditis as the reason for admission and a significant increase in those developing the infection in the hospital. Photo Credit: Rutgers Today, Rutgers University

“In the past, infective endocarditis was associated with rheumatic heart disease and most often caused by bacteria in the mouth,” said lead author Abel Moreyra, a Professor of Medicine at Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School in a September 29th statement detailing the study’s finding. “However, new risk factors, such as intravenous opiate abuse, compromised immune systems, hemodialysis and implanted heart devices have emerged,” says Moreyra.

To see how guideline changes affected the rate of infections, the RU researchers analyzed 21,443 records of people who were diagnosed with infective endocarditis in New Jersey hospitals from 1994 to 2015. They made a surprising discovery: Beginning in 2004 and continuing thereafter, there was a significant decline in the number of patients hospitalized with infective endocarditis as the primary diagnosis for their reason for admission and a significant increase in the number of patients developing the infection in the hospital, or a secondary diagnosis. In total, 9,191 people were hospitalized with infective endocarditis as the primary diagnosis and 12,252 with secondary diagnosis.

 Looking at the Decline   

Moreyra believes this the decline in primary diagnosis to improved dental care and the infrequency of rheumatic heart disease, where streptococcus plays a predominant role in the infection. “However, 60 percent of infective endocarditis that developed after admission were caused by adifferent microorganism, staphylococcus bacteria, which is abundant in hospitals and implicates health care as a possible source of infection,” he said.

Moreyra says that the analysis of the different time trends of primary and secondary diagnosis of infective endocarditis can help hospitals customize different treatment strategies for the prevention of this potentially lethal infection.